Category Archives: Big Data

Zoomanitarians: Using Citizen Science and Next Generation Satellites to Accelerate Disaster Damage Assessments

Zoomanitarians has been in the works for well over a year, so we’re excited to be going fully public for the first time. Zoomanitarians is a joint initiative between Zooniverse (Brook Simmons), Planet Labs (Alex Bakir) and myself at QCRI. The purpose of Zoomanitarians is to accelerate disaster damage assessments by leveraging Planet Labs’ unique constellation of 28 satellites and Zooniverse’s highly scalable microtasking platform. As I noted in this earlier post, digital volunteers from Zooniverse tagged well over 2 million satellite images (of Mars, below) in just 48 hours. So why not invite Zooniverse volunteers to tag millions of images taken by Planet Labs following major disasters (on Earth) to help humanitarians accelerate their damage assessments?

Zooniverse Planet 4

That was the question I posed to Brooke and Alex in early 2013. “Why not indeed?” was our collective answer. So we reached out to several knowledgeable colleagues of mine including Kate Chapman from Humanitarian OpenStreetMap and Lars Bromley from UNOSAT for their feedback and guidance on the idea.

We’ll be able to launch our first pilot project later this year thanks to Kate who kindly provided us with very high-resolution UAV/aerial imagery of downtown Tacloban in the Philippines. Why do we want said imagery when the plan is to use Planet Labs imagery? Because Planet Labs imagery is currently available at 3-5 meter resolution so we’ll be “degrading” the resolution of the aerial imagery to determine just what level and type of damage can be captured at various resolutions as compared to the imagery from Planet Labs. The pilot project will therefore serve to (1) customize & test the Zoomanitarians microtasking platform and (2) determine what level of detail can be captured at various resolutions.


We’ll then spend the remainder of the year improving the platform based on the results of the pilot project during which time I will continue to seek input from humanitarian colleagues. Zooniverse’s microtasking platform has already been stress-tested extensively over the years, which is one reason why I approached Zooniverse last year. The other reason is that they have over 1 million digital volunteers on their list-serve. Couple this with Planet Labs’ unique constellation of 28 satellites, and you’ve got the potential for near real-time satellite imagery analysis for disaster response. Our plan is to produce “heat maps” based on the results and to share shape files as well for overlay on other maps.

It took imagery analysts well over 48 hours to acquire and analyze satellite imagery following Typhoon Yolanda. While Planet Labs imagery is not (yet) available at high-resolutions, our hope is that Zoomanitarians will be able to acquire and analyze relevant imagery within 12-24 hours of a request. Several colleagues have confirmed to me that the results of this rapid analysis will also prove invaluable for subsequent, higher-resolution satellite imagery acquisition and analysis. On a related note, I hope that our rapid satellite-based damage assessments will also serve as a triangulation mechanism (ground-truthing) for the rapid social-media-driven damage assessments carried out using the Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR) platform and MicroMappers.

While much work certainly remains, and while Zoomanitairans is still in the early phases of research and development, I’m nevertheless excited and optimistic about the potential impact—as are my colleagues Brooke and Alex. We’ll be announcing the date of the pilot later this summer, so stay tuned for updates!

Got TweetCred? Use it To Automatically Identify Credible Tweets (Updated)

Update: Users have created an astounding one million+ tags over the past few weeks, which will help increase the accuracy of TweetCred in coming months as we use these tags to further train our machine learning classifiers. We will be releasing our Firefox plugin in the next few days. In the meantime, we have just released our paper on TweetCred which describes our methodology & classifiers in more detail.

What if there were a way to automatically identify credible tweets during major events like disasters? Sounds rather far-fetched, right? Think again.

The new field of Digital Information Forensics is increasingly making use of Big Data analytics and techniques from artificial intelligence like machine learning to automatically verify social media. This is how my QCRI colleague ChaTo et al. already predicted both credible and non-credible tweets generated after the Chile Earthquake (with an accuracy of 86%). Meanwhile, my colleagues Aditi, et al. from IIIT Delhi also used machine learning to automatically rank the credibility of some 35 million tweets generated during a dozen major international events such as the UK Riots and the Libya Crisis. So we teamed up with Aditi et al. to turn those academic findings into TweetCred, a free app that identifies credible tweets automatically.

CNN TweetCred

We’ve just launched the very first version of TweetCred—key word being first. This means that our new app is still experimental. On the plus side, since TweetCred is powered by machine learning, it will become increasingly accurate over time as more users make use of the app and “teach” it the difference between credible and non-credible tweets. Teaching TweetCred is as simple as a click of the mouse. Take the tweet below, for example.

ARC TweetCred Teach

TweetCred scores each tweet based based on a 7-point system, the higher the number of blue dots, the more credible the content of the tweet is likely to be. Note that a TweetCred score also takes into account any pictures or videos included in a tweet along with the reputation and popularity of the Twitter user. Naturally, TweetCred won’t always get it right, which is where the teaching and machine learning come in. The above tweet from the American Red Cross is more credible than three dots would suggest. So you simply hover your mouse over the blue dots and click on the “thumbs down” icon to tell TweetCred it got that tweet wrong. The app will then ask you to tag the correct level of credibility for that tweet is.

ARC TweetCred Teach 3

That’s all there is to it. As noted above, this is just the first version of TweetCred. The more all of us use (and teach) the app, the more accurate it will be. So please try it out and spread the word. You can download the Chrome Extension for TweetCred here. If you don’t use Chrome, you can still use the browser version here although the latter has less functionality. We very much welcome any feedback you may have, so simply post feedback in the comments section below. Keep in mind that TweetCred is specifically designed to rate the credibility of disaster/crisis related tweets rather than any random topic on Twitter.

As I note in my book Digital Humanitarians (forthcoming), empirical studies have shown that we’re less likely to spread rumors on Twitter if false tweets are publicly identified by Twitter users as being non-credible. In fact, these studies show that such public exposure increases the number of Twitter users who then seek to stop the spread of said of rumor-related tweets by 150%. But, it makes a big difference whether one sees the rumors first or the tweets dismissing said rumors first. So my hope is that TweetCred will help accelerate Twitter’s self-correcting behavior by automatically identifying credible tweets while countering rumor-related tweets in real-time.

This project is a joint collaboration between IIIT and QCRI. Big thanks to Aditi and team for their heavy lifting on the coding of TweetCred. If the experiments go well, my QCRI colleagues and I may integrate TweetCred within our AIDR (Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response) and Verily platforms.


See also:

  • New Insights on How to Verify Social Media [link]
  • Predicting the Credibility of Disaster Tweets Automatically [link]
  • Auto-Ranking Credibility of Tweets During Major Events [link]
  • Auto-Identifying Fake Images on Twitter During Disasters [link]
  • Truth in the Age of Social Media: A Big Data Challenge [link]
  • Analyzing Fake Content on Twitter During Boston Bombings [link]
  • How to Verify Crowdsourced Information from Social Media [link]
  • Crowdsourcing Critical Thinking to Verify Social Media [link]
  • Tweets, Crises and Behavioral Psychology: On Credibility and Information Sharing [link]

Using AIDR to Collect and Analyze Tweets from Chile Earthquake

Wish you had a better way to make sense of Twitter during disasters than this?

Type in a keyword like #ChileEarthquake in Twitter’s search box above and you’ll see more tweets than you can possibly read in a day let alone keep up with for more than a few minutes. Wish there way were an easy, free and open source solution? Well you’ve come to the right place. My team and I at QCRI are developing the Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR) platform to do just this. Here’s how it works:

First you login to the AIDR platform using your own Twitter handle (click images below to enlarge):

AIDR login

You’ll then see your collection of tweets (if you already have any). In my case, you’ll see I have three. The first is a collection of English language tweets related to the Chile Earthquake. The second is a collection of Spanish tweets. The third is a collection of more than 3,000,000 tweets related to the missing Malaysia Airlines plane. A preliminary analysis of these tweets is available here.

AIDR collections

Lets look more closely at my Chile Earthquake 2014 collection (see below, click to enlarge). I’ve collected about a quarter of a million tweets in the past 30 hours or so. The label “Downloaded tweets (since last re-start)” simply refers to the number of tweets I’ve collected since adding a new keyword or hashtag to my collection. I started the collection yesterday at 5:39am my time (yes, I’m an early bird). Under “Keywords” you’ll see all the hashtags and keywords I’ve used to search for tweets related to the earthquake in Chile. I’ve also specified the geographic region I want to collect tweets from. Don’t worry, you don’t actually have to enter geographic coordinates when you set up your own collection, you simply highlight (on map) the area you’re interested in and AIDR does the rest.

AIDR - Chile Earthquake 2014

You’ll also note in the above screenshot that I’ve selected to only collect tweets in English, but you can collect all language tweets if you’d like or just a select few. Finally, the Collaborators section simply lists the colleagues I’ve added to my collection. This gives them the ability to add new keywords/hashtags and to download the tweets collected as shown below (click to enlarge). More specifically, collaborators can download the most recent 100,000 tweets (and also share the link with others). The 100K tweet limit is based on Twitter’s Terms of Service (ToS). If collaborators want all the tweets, Twitter’s ToS allows for sharing the TweetIDs for an unlimited number of tweets.

AIDR download CSV

So that’s the AIDR Collector. We also have the AIDR Classifier, which helps you make sense of the tweets you’re collecting (in real-time). That is, your collection of tweets doesn’t stop, it continues growing, and as it does, you can make sense of new tweets as they come in. With the Classifier, you simply teach AIDR to classify tweets into whatever topics you’re interested in, like “Infrastructure Damage”, for example. To get started with the AIDR Classifier, simply return to the “Details” tab of our Chile collection. You’ll note the “Go To Classifier” button on the far right:

AIDR go to Classifier

Clicking on that button allows you to create a Classifier, say on the topic of disaster damage in general. So you simply create a name for your Classifier, in this case “Disaster Damage” and then create Tags to capture more details with respect to damage-related tweets. For example, one Tag might be, say, “Damage to Transportation Infrastructure.” Another could be “Building Damage.” In any event, once you’ve created your Classifier and corresponding tags, you click Submit and find your way to this page (click to enlarge):

AIDR Classifier Link

You’ll notice the public link for volunteers. That’s basically the interface you’ll use to teach AIDR. If you want to teach AIDR by yourself, you can certainly do so. You also have the option of “crowdsourcing the teaching” of AIDR. Clicking on the link will take you to the page below.

AIDR to MicroMappers

So, I called my Classifier “Message Contents” which is not particularly insightful; I should have labeled it something like “Humanitarian Information Needs” or something, but bear with me and lets click on that Classifier. This will take you to the following Clicker on MicroMappers:

MicroMappers Clicker

Now this is not the most awe-inspiring interface you’ve ever seen (at least I hope not); reason being that this is simply our very first version. We’ll be providing different “skins” like the official MicroMappers skin (below) as well as a skin that allows you to upload your own logo, for example. In the meantime, note that AIDR shows every tweet to at least three different volunteers. And only if each of these 3 volunteers agree on how to classify a given tweet does AIDR take that into consideration when learning. In other words, AIDR wants to ensure that humans are really sure about how to classify a tweet before it decides to learn from that lesson. Incidentally, The MicroMappers smartphone app for the iPhone and Android will be available in the next few weeks. But I digress.

Yolanda TweetClicker4

As you and/or your volunteers classify tweets based on the Tags you created, AIDR starts to learn—hence the AI (Artificial Intelligence) in AIDR. AIDR begins to recognize that all the tweets you classified as “Infrastructure Damage” are indeed similar. Once you’ve tagged enough tweets, AIDR will decide that it’s time to leave the nest and fly on it’s own. In other words, it will start to auto-classify incoming tweets in real-time. (At present, AIDR can auto-classify some 30,000 tweets per minute; compare this to the peak rate of 16,000 tweets per minute observed during Hurricane Sandy).

Of course, AIDR’s first solo “flights” won’t always go smoothly. But not to worry, AIDR will let you know when it needs a little help. Every tweet that AIDR auto-tags comes with a Confidence level. That is, AIDR will let you know: “I am 80% sure that I correctly classified this tweet”. If AIDR has trouble with a tweet, i.e., if it’s confidence level is 65% or below, the it will send the tweet to you (and/or your volunteers) so it can learn from how you classify that particular tweet. In other words, the more tweets you classify, the more AIDR learns, and the higher AIDR’s confidence levels get. Fun, huh?

To view the results of the machine tagging, simply click on the View/Download tab, as shown below (click to enlarge). The page shows you the latest tweets that have been auto-tagged along with the Tag label and the confidence score. (Yes, this too is the first version of that interface, we’ll make it more user-friendly in the future, not to worry). In any event, you can download the auto-tagged tweets in a CSV file and also share the download link with your colleagues for analysis and so on. At some point in the future, we hope to provide a simple data visualization output page so that you can easily see interesting data trends.

AIDR Results

So that’s basically all there is to it. If you want to learn more about how it all works, you might fancy reading this research paper (PDF). In the meantime, I’ll simply add that you can re-use your Classifiers. If (when?) another earthquake strikes Chile, you won’t have to start from scratch. You can auto-tag incoming tweets immediately with the Classifier you already have. Plus, you’ll be able to share your classifiers with your colleagues and partner organizations if you like. In other words, we’re envisaging an “App Store” of Classifiers based on different hazards and different countries. The more we re-use our Classifiers, the more accurate they will become. Everybody wins.

And voila, that is AIDR (at least our first version). If you’d like to test the platform and/or want the tweets from the Chile Earthquake, simply get in touch!



  • We’re adapting AIDR so that it can also classify text messages (SMS).
  • AIDR Classifiers are language specific. So if you speak Spanish, you can create a classifier to tag all Spanish language tweets/SMS that refer to disaster damage, for example. In other words, AIDR does not only speak English : )

Analyzing Tweets on Malaysia Flight #MH370

My QCRI colleague Dr. Imran is using our AIDR platform (Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response) to collect & analyze tweets related to Malaysia Flight 370 that went missing several days ago. He has collected well over 850,000 English-language tweets since March 11th; using the following keywords/hashtags: Malaysia Airlines flight, #MH370m #PrayForMH370 and #MalaysiaAirlines.

MH370 Prayers

Imran then used AIDR to create a number of “machine learning classifiers” to automatically classify all incoming tweets into categories that he is interested in:

  • Informative: tweets that relay breaking news, useful info, etc

  • Praying: tweets that are related to prayers and faith

  • Personal: tweets that express personal opinions

The process is super simple. All he does is tag several dozen incoming tweets into their respective categories. This teaches AIDR what an “Informative” tweet should “look like”. Since our novel approach combines human intelligence with artificial intelligence, AIDR is typically far more accurate at capturing relevant tweets than Twitter’s keyword search.

And the more tweets that Imran tags, the more accurate AIDR gets. At present, AIDR can auto-classify ~500 tweets per second, or 30,000 tweets per minute. This is well above the highest velocity of crisis tweets recorded thus far—16,000 tweets/minute during Hurricane Sandy.

The graph below depicts the number of tweets generated since the day we started collecting the AIDR collection, i.e., March 11th.

Volume of Tweets per Day

This series of pie charts simply reflects the relative share of tweets per category over the past four days.

Tweets Trends

Below are some of the tweets that AIDR has automatically classified as being Informative (click to enlarge). The “Confidence” score simply reflects how confident AIDR is that it has correctly auto-classified a tweet. Note that Imran could also have crowdsourced the manual tagging—that is, he could have crowdsourced the process of teaching AIDR. To learn more about how AIDR works, please see this short overview and this research paper (PDF).

AIDR output

If you’re interested in testing AIDR (still very much under development) and/or would like the Tweet ID’s for the 850,000+ tweets we’ve collected using AIDR, then feel free to contact me. In the meantime, we’ll start a classifier that auto-collects tweets related to hijacking, criminal causes, and so on. If you’d like us to create a classifier for a different topic, let us know—but we can’t make any promises since we’re working on an important project deadline. When we’re further along with the development of AIDR, anyone will be able to easily collect & download tweets and create & share their own classifiers for events related to humanitarian issues.


Acknowledgements: Many thanks to Imran for collecting and classifying the tweets. Imran also shared the graphs and tabular output that appears above.

Results of the Crowdsourced Search for Malaysia Flight 370 (Updated)

Update: More than 3 million volunteers thus far have joined the crowdsourcing efforts to locate the missing Malaysian Airlines plane. These digital volunteers have viewed over a quarter-of-a-billion micro-maps and have tagged almost 3 million features in these satellite maps. Source of update.

Malaysian authorities have now gone on record to confirm that Flight 370 was hijacked, which reportedly explains why contact with the passenger jet abruptly ceased a week ago. The Search & Rescue operations now involve 13 countries around the world and over 100 ships, helicopters and airplanes. The costs of this massive operation must easily be running into the millions of dollars.


Meanwhile, a free crowdsourcing platform once used by digital volunteers to search for Genghis Khan’s Tomb and displaced populations in Somalia (video below) has been deployed to search high-resolution satellite imagery for signs of the missing airliner. This is not the first time that crowdsourced satellite imagery analysis has been used to find a missing plane but this is certainly the highest profile operation yet, which may explain why the crowdsourcing platform used for the search (Tomnod) reportedly crashed for over a dozen of hours since the online search began. (Note that Zooniverse can easily handle this level of traffic). Click on the video below to learn more about the crowdsourced search for Genghis Khan and displaced peoples in Somalia.


Having current, high-resolution satellite imagery is almost as good as having your own helicopter. So the digital version of these search operations includes tens of thousands of digital helicopters, whose virtual pilots are covering over 2,000 square miles of Thailand’s Gulf right from their own computers. They’re doing this entirely for free, around the clock and across multiple time zones. This is what Digital Humanitarians have been doing ever since the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, and most recently in response to Typhoon Yolanda.

Tomnod has just released the top results of the crowdsourced digital search efforts, which are displayed in the short video below. Like other microtasking platforms, Tomnod uses triangulation to calculate areas of greatest consensus by the crowd. This is explained further here. Note: The example shown in the video is NOT a picture of Flight 370 but perhaps of an airborne Search & Rescue plane.

While looking for evidence of the missing airliner is like looking for the proverbial needle in a massive stack of satellite images, perhaps the biggest value-added of this digital search lays in identifying where the aircraft is most definitely not located—that is, approaching this crowdsourced operation as a process of elimination. Professional imagery analysts can very easily and quickly review images tagged by the crowd, even if they are mistakenly tagged as depicting wreckage. In other words, the crowd can provide the first level filter so that expert analysts don’t waste their time looking at thousands of images of bare oceans. Basically, if the mandate is to leave no stone unturned, then the crowd can do that very well.

In sum, crowdsourcing can reduce the signal to noise ratio so that experts can focus more narrowly on analyzing the potential signals. This process may not be perfect just yet but it can be refined and improved. (Note that professionals also get it wrong, like Chinese analysts did with this satellite image of the supposed Malaysian airliner).

If these digital efforts continue and Flight 370 has indeed been hijacked, then this will certainly be the first time that crowdsourced satellite imagery analysis is used to find a hijacked aircraft. The latest satellite imagery uploaded by Tomnod is no longer focused on bodies of water but rather land. The blue strips below (left) is the area that the new satellite imagery covers.

Tomnod New Imagery 2

Some important questions will need to be addressed if this operation is indeed extended. What if the hijackers make contact and order the cessation of all offline and online Search & Rescue operations? Would volunteers be considered “digital combatants,” potentially embroiled in political conflict in which the lives of 227 hostages are at stake?


Note: The Google Earth containing the top results of the search is available here.

See also: Analyzing Tweets on Malaysia Flight #MH370 [link]

Calling all UAV Pilots: Want to Support Humanitarian Efforts?

I’m launching a volunteer network to connect responsible civilian UAV pilots who are interested in safely and legally supporting humanitarian efforts when the need arises. I’ve been thinking through the concept for months now and have benefited from great feedback. The result is this draft strategy document; the keyword being draft. The concept is still being developed and there’s still room for improvement. So I very much welcome more constructive feedback.

Click here to join the list-serve for this initiative, which I’m referring to as the Humanitarian UAViators Network. Thank you for sharing this project far and wide—it will only work if we get a critical mass of UAV pilots from all around the world. Of course, launching such a network raises more questions than answers, but I welcome the challenge and believe members of UAViators will be well placed to address and manage these challenges.


Crowdsourcing the Search for Malaysia Flight 370 (Updated)

Early Results available here!

Update from Tomnod: The response has literally been overwhelming: our servers struggled to keep up all day.  We’ve been hacking hard to make some fixes and I think that the site is working now but I apologize if you have problems connecting: we’re getting up to 100,000 page views every minute! DigitalGlobe satellites are continuing to collect imagery as new reports about the possible crash sites come in so we’ll keep updating the site with new data.

Beijing-bound Flight 370 suddenly disappeared on March 8th without a trace. My colleagues at Tomnod have just deployed their satellite imagery crowdsourcing platform to support the ongoing Search & Rescue efforts. Using high-resolution satellite imagery from DigitalGlobe, Tomnod is inviting digital volunteers from around the world to search for any sign of debris from missing Boeing 777.


The DigitalGlobe satellite imagery is dated March 9th and covers over 1,000 square miles. What the Tomnod platform does is slice that imagery into many small squares like the one below (click to enlarge). Volunteers then tag one image at a time. This process is known as microtasking (or crowd computing). For quality control purposes, each image is shown to more than one volunteer. This consensus-based approach allows Tomnod to triangulate the tagging.


I’ve long advocated for the use of microtasking to support humanitarian efforts. In 2010, I wrote about how volunteers used microtasking to crowdsource the search for Steve Fossett who had disappeared while flying a small single-engine airplane in Nevada. This was back in 2007. In 2011, I spearheaded a partnership with the UN Refugee Agency (UNCHR) in Somalia and used the Tomnod platform to crowdsource the search for internally displaced populations in the drought-stricken Afgooye Corridor. More here. I later launched a collaboration with Amnesty International in Syria to crowdsource the search for evidence of major human rights violations—again with my colleagues from Tomnod. Recently, my team and I at QCRI have been developing MicroMappers to support humanitarian efforts. At the UN’s request, MicroMappers was launched following Typhoon Yolanda to accelerate their rapid damage assessment. I’ve also written on the use of crowd computing for Search & Rescue operations.


I’m still keeping a tiny glimmer of hope that somehow Malaysia Flight 370 was able to land somewhere and that there are survivors. I can only image what families, loved ones and friends must be going through. I’m sure they are desperate for information, one way or another. So please consider spending a few minutes of your time to support these Search and Rescue efforts. Thank you.


Note: If you don’t see any satellite imagery on the Tomnod platform for Flight 370, this means the team is busy uploading new imagery. So please check in again in a couple hours.

See also: Analyzing Tweets on Malaysia Flight #MH370 [link]