Tag Archives: HOT

How Digital Jedis Are Springing to Action In Response To Cyclone Pam

Digital Humanitarians sprung to action just hours after the Category 5 Cyclone collided with Vanuatu’s many islands. This first deployment focused on rapidly assessing the damage by analyzing multimedia content posted on social media and in the mainstream news. This request came directly from the United Nations (OCHA), which activated the Digital Humanitarian Network (DHN) to carry out the rapid damage assessment. So the Standby Task Force (SBTF), a founding member of the DHN, used QCRI′s MicroMappers platform to produce a digital, interactive Crisis Map of some 1,000+ geo-tagged pictures of disaster damage (screenshot below).


Within days of Cyclone Pam making landfall, the World Bank (WB) activated the Humanitarian UAV Network (UAViators) to quickly deploy UAV pilots to the affected islands. UAViators has access to a global network of 700+ professional UAV pilots is some 70+ countries worldwide. The WB identified two UAV teams from the Humanitarian UAV Network and deployed them to capture very high-resolution aerial photographs of the damage to support the Government’s post-disaster damage assessment efforts. Pictures from these early UAV missions are available here. Aerial images & videos of the disaster damage were also posted to the UAViators Crowdsourced Crisis Map.

Last week, the World Bank activated the DHN (for the first time ever) to help analyze the many, many GigaBytes of aerial imagery from Vanuatu. So Digital Jedis from the DHN are now using Humanitarian OpenStreetMap (HOT) and MicroMappers (MM) to crowdsource the search for partially damaged and fully destroyed houses in the aerial imagery. The OSM team is specifically looking at the “nadir imagery” captured by the UAVs while MM is exclusively reviewing the “oblique imagery“. More specifically, digital volunteers are using MM to trace destroyed houses red, partially damaged houses orange, and using blue to denote houses that appear to have little to no damage. Below is an early screenshot of the Aerial Crisis Map for the island of Efate. The live Crisis Map is available here.

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Clicking on one of these markers will open up the high resolution aerial pictures taken at that location. Here, two houses are traced in blue (little to no damage) and two on the upper left are traced in orange (partial damage expected).

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The cameras on the UAVs captured the aerial imagery in very high resolution, as you can see from the close up below. You’ll note two traces for the house. These two traces were done by two independent volunteers (for the purposes of quality control). In fact, each aerial image is shown to at least 3 different Digital Jedis.

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Once this MicroMappers deployment is over, we’ll be using the resulting traces to create automated featured detection algorithms; just like we did here for the MicroMappers Namibia deployment. This approach, combining crowdsourcing with Artificial Intelligence (AI), is explored in more detail here vis-a-vis disaster response. The purpose of taking this hybrid human-machine computing solution is to accelerate (semi-automate) future damage assessment efforts.

Meanwhile, back in Vanuatu, the HOT team has already carried out some tentative, preliminary analysis of the damage based on the aerial imagery provided. They are also up-dating their OSM maps of the affected islands thanks this imagery. Below is an initial damage assessment carried out by HOT for demonstration purposes only. Please visit their deployment page on the Vanuatu response for more information.


So what’s next? Combining both the nadir and oblique imagery to interpret disaster damage is ultimately what is needed, so we’re actually hoping to make this happen (today) by displaying the nadir imagery directly within the Aerial Crisis Map produced by MicroMappers. (Many thanks to the MapBox team for their assistance on this). We hope this integration will help HOT and our World Bank partners better assess the disaster damage. This is the first time that we as a group are doing anything like this, so obviously lots of learning going on, which should improve future deployments. Ultimately, we’ll need to create 3D models (point clouds) of disaster affected areas (already easy to do with high-resolution aerial imagery) and then simply use MicroMappers to crowdsource the analysis of these 3D models.

And here’s a 3D model of a village in Vanuatu constructed using 2D aerial photos taken by UAV:

For now, though, Digital Jedis will continue working very closely with the World Bank to ensure that the latter have the results they need in the right format to deliver a comprehensive damage assessment to the Government of Vanuatu by the end of the week. In the meantime, if you’re interested in learning more about digital humanitarian action, then please check out my new book, which features UAViators, HOT, MM and lots more.

OpenStreetMap’s New Micro-Tasking Platform for Satellite Imagery Tracing

The Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team’s (HOT) response to Haiti remains one of the most remarkable examples of what’s possible when volunteers, open source software and open data intersect. When the 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck on January 12th, 2010, the Google Map of downtown Port-au-Prince was simply too incomplete to be used for humanitarian response. Within days, however, several hundred volunteers from the OpenStreetMap (OSM) commu-nity used satellite imagery to trace roads, shelters and other important features to create the most detailed map of Haiti ever made.

OpenStreetMap – Project Haiti from ItoWorld on Vimeo.

The video animation above shows just how spectacular this initiative was. More than 1.4 million edits were made to the map during the first month following the earthquake. These individual edits are highlighted as bright flashes of light in the video. This detailed map went a long way to supporting the humanitarian community’s response in Haiti. In addition, the map enabled my colleagues and I at The Fletcher School to geo-locate reports from crowdsourced text messages from Mission 4636 on the Ushahidi Haiti Map.

HOT’s response was truly remarkable. They created wiki’s to facilitate mass collaboration such as this page on “What needs to be mapped?” They also used this “OSM Matrix” to depict which areas required more mapping:

The purpose of OSM’s new micro-tasking platform is to streamline mass and rapid collaboration on future satellite image tracing projects. I recently reached out to HOT’s Kate Chapman and Nicolas Chavent to get an overview of their new platform. After logging in using my OSM username and password, I can click through a list of various on-going projects. The one below relates to a very neat HOT project in Indonesia. As you can tell, the region that needs to be mapped on the right-hand side of the screen is divided into a grid.

After I click on “Take a task randomly”, the screen below appears, pointing me to one specific cell in the grid above. I then have the option of opening and editing this cell within JOSM, the standard interface for editing OpenStreetMap. I would then trace all roads and buildings in my square and submit the edit. (I was excited to also see a link to WalkingPapers which allows you to print out and annotate that cell using pen & paper and then digitize the result for import back into OSM).

There’s no doubt that this new Tasking Server will go a long way to coordinate and streamline future live tracing efforts such as for Somalia. For now, the team is mapping Somalia’s road network using their wiki approach. In the future, I hope that the platform will also enable basic feature tagging and back-end triangulation for quality assurance purposes—much like Tomnod. In the meantime, however, it’s important to note that OSM is far more than just a global open source map. OSM’s open data advocacy is imperative for disaster preparedness and response: open data saves lives.