Tag Archives: Indonesia

Social Media for Disaster Response – Done Right!

To say that Indonesia’s capital is prone to flooding would be an understatement. Well over 40% of Jakarta is at or below sea level. Add to this a rapidly growing population of over 10 million and you have a recipe for recurring disasters. Increasing the resilience of the city’s residents to flooding is thus imperative. Resilience is the capacity of affected individuals to self-organize effectively, which requires timely decision-making based on accurate, actionable and real-time information. But Jakarta is also flooded with information during disasters. Indeed, the Indonesian capital is the world’s most active Twitter city.

JK1

So even if relevant, actionable information on rising flood levels could somehow be gleaned from millions of tweets in real-time, these reports could be inaccurate or completely false. Besides, only 3% of tweets on average are geo-located, which means any reliable evidence of flooding reported via Twitter is typically not actionable—that is, unless local residents and responders know where waters are rising, they can’t take tactical action in a timely manner. These major challenges explain why most discount the value of social media for disaster response.

But Digital Humanitarians in Jakarta aren’t your average Digital Humanitarians. These Digital Jedis recently launched one of the most promising humanitarian technology initiatives I’ve seen in years. Code named Peta Jakarta, the project takes social media and digital humanitarian action to the next level. Whenever someone posts a tweet with the word banjir (flood), they receive an automated tweet reply from @PetaJkt inviting them to confirm whether they see signs of flooding in their area: “Flooding? Enable geo-location, tweet @petajkt #banjir and check petajakarta.org.” The user can confirm their report by turning geo-location on and simply replying with the keyword banjir or flood. The result gets added to a live, public crisis map, like the one below.

Credit: Peta Jakarta

Over the course of the 2014/2015 monsoon season, Peta Jakarta automatically sent 89,000 tweets to citizens in Jakarta as a call to action to confirm flood conditions. These automated invitation tweets served to inform the user about the project and linked to the video below (via Twitter Cards) to provide simple instructions on how to submit a confirmed report with approximate flood levels. If a Twitter user forgets to turn on the geo-location feature of their smartphone, they receive an automated tweet reminding them to enable geo-location and resubmit their tweet. Finally, the platform “generates a thank you message confirming the receipt of the user’s report and directing them to PetaJakarta.org to see their contribution to the map.” Note that the “overall aim of sending programmatic messages is not to simply solicit a high volume of replies, but to reach active, committed citizen-users willing to participate in civic co-management by sharing nontrivial data that can benefit other users and government agencies in decision-making during disaster scenarios.”

A report is considered verified when a confirmed geo-tagged tweet includes a picture of the flooding, like in the tweet below. These confirmed and verified tweets get automatically mapped and also shared with Jakarta’s Emergency Management Agency (BPBD DKI Jakarta). The latter are directly involved in this initiative since they’re “regularly faced with the difficult challenge of anticipating & responding to floods hazards and related extreme weather events in Jakarta.” This direct partnership also serves to limit the “Data Rot Syndrome” where data is gathered but not utilized. Note that Peta Jakarta is able to carry out additional verification measures by manually assessing the validity of tweets and pictures by cross-checking other Twitter reports from the same district and also by monitoring “television and internet news sites, to follow coverage of flooded areas and cross-check reports.”

Screen Shot 2015-06-29 at 2.38.54 PM

During the latest monsoon season, Peta Jakarta “received and mapped 1,119 confirmed reports of flooding. These reports were formed by 877 users, indicating an average tweet to user ratio of 1.27 tweets per user. A further 2,091 confirmed reports were received without the required geolocation metadata to be mapped, highlighting the value of the programmatic geo-location ‘reminders’ […]. With regard to unconfirmed reports, Peta Jakarta recorded and mapped a total of 25,584 over the course of the monsoon.”

The Live Crisis Maps could be viewed via two different interfaces depending on the end user. For local residents, the maps could be accessed via smartphone with the visual display designed specifically for more tactical decision-making, showing flood reports at the neighborhood level and only for the past hour.

PJ2

For institutional partners, the data is visualized in more aggregate terms for strategic decision-making based trends-analysis and data integration. “When viewed on a desktop computer, the web-application scaled the map to show a situational overview of the city.”

Credit: Peta Jakarta

Peta Jakarta has “proven the value and utility of social media as a mega-city methodology for crowdsourcing relevant situational information to aid in decision-making and response coordination during extreme weather events.” The initiative enables “autonomous users to make independent decisions on safety and navigation in response to the flood in real-time, thereby helping increase the resilience of the city’s residents to flooding and its attendant difficulties.” In addition, by “providing decision support at the various spatial and temporal scales required by the different actors within city, Peta Jakarta offers an innovative and inexpensive method for the crowdsourcing of time-critical situational information in disaster scenarios.” The resulting confirmed and verified tweets were used by BPBD DKI Jakarta to “cross-validate formal reports of flooding from traditional data sources, supporting the creation of information for flood assessment, response, and management in real-time.”


My blog post is based several conversations I had with Peta Jakarta team and on this white paper, which was just published a week ago. The report runs close to 100 pages and should absolutely be considered required reading for all Digital Humanitarians and CrisisMappers. The paper includes several dozen insights which a short blog post simply cannot do justice to. If you can’t find the time to read the report, then please see the key excerpts below. In a future blog post, I’ll describe how the Peta Jakarta team plans to leverage UAVs to complement social media reporting.

  • Extracting knowledge from the “noise” of social media requires designed engagement and filtering processes to eliminate unwanted information, reward valuable reports, and display useful data in a manner that further enables users, governments, or other agencies to make non-trivial, actionable decisions in a time-critical manner.
  • While the utility of passively-mined social media data can offer insights for offline analytics and derivative studies for future planning scenarios, the critical issue for frontline emergency responders is the organization and coordination of actionable, real-time data related to disaster situations.
  • User anonymity in the reporting process was embedded within the Peta Jakarta project. Whilst the data produced by Twitter reports of flooding is in the public domain, the objective was not to create an archive of users who submitted potentially sensitive reports about flooding events, outside of the Twitter platform. Peta Jakarta was thus designed to anonymize reports collected by separating reports from their respective users. Furthermore, the text content of tweets is only stored when the report is confirmed, that is, when the user has opted to send a message to the @petajkt account to describe their situation. Similarly, when usernames are stored, they are encrypted using a one-way hash function.
  • In developing the Peta Jakarta brand as the public face of the project, it was important to ensure that the interface and map were presented as community-owned, rather than as a government product or academic research tool. Aiming to appeal to first adopters—the young, tech-savvy Twitter-public of Jakarta—the language used in all the outreach materials (Twitter replies, the outreach video, graphics, and print advertisements) was intentionally casual and concise. Because of the repeated recurrence of flood events during the monsoon, and the continuation of daily activities around and through these flood events, the messages were intentionally designed to be more like normal twitter chatter and less like public service announcements.
  • It was important to design the user interaction with PetaJakarta.org to create a user experience that highlighted the community resource element of the project (similar to the Waze traffic app), rather than an emergency or information service. With this aim in mind, the graphics and language are casual and light in tone. In the video, auto-replies, and print advertisements, PetaJakarta.org never used alarmist or moralizing language; instead, the graphic identity is one of casual, opt-in, community participation.
  • The most frequent question directed to @petajkt on Twitter was about how to activate the geo-location function for tweets. So far, this question has been addressed manually by sending a reply tweet with a graphic instruction describing how to activate geo-location functionality.
  • Critical to the success of the project was its official public launch with, and promotion by, the Governor. This endorsement gave the platform very high visibility and increased legitimacy among other government agencies and public users; it also produced a very successful media event, which led substantial media coverage and subsequent public attention.

  • The aggregation of the tweets (designed to match the spatio-temporal structure of flood reporting in the system of the Jakarta Disaster Management Agency) was still inadequate when looking at social media because it could result in their overlooking reports that occurred in areas of especially low Twitter activity. Instead, the Agency used the @petajkt Twitter stream to direct their use of the map and to verify and cross-check information about flood-affected areas in real-time. While this use of social media was productive overall, the findings from the Joint Pilot Study have led to the proposal for the development of a more robust Risk Evaluation Matrix (REM) that would enable Peta Jakarta to serve a wider community of users & optimize the data collection process through an open API.
  • Developing a more robust integration of social media data also means leveraging other potential data sets to increase the intelligence produced by the system through hybridity; these other sources could include, but are not limited to, government, private sector, and NGO applications (‘apps’) for on- the-ground data collection, LIDAR or UAV-sourced elevation data, and fixed ground control points with various types of sensor data. The “citizen-as- sensor” paradigm for urban data collection will advance most effectively if other types of sensors and their attendant data sources are developed in concert with social media sourced information.

Crowdsourcing Community-Based Disaster Relief in Indonesia

I just came across a very neat example of crowdsourced, community-based crisis response in this excellent report by the BBC World Service Trust: “Still Left in the Dark? How People in Emergencies Use Communication to Survive—And How Humanitarian Agencies Can Help.” I plan to provide a detailed summary of this important report in a forthcoming blog post. In the meantime, this very neat example below (taken directly from said BBC report) is well worth sharing.

“In Indonesia during the eruption of Mount Merapi in November 2010, a local radio community known as Jalin Merapi began to share information via Twitter and used the network to organize community-based relief to over 700 shelters on the side of the mountain […].”

“The Jalin Merapi network was founded following an eruption of the Mount Merapi volcano on Java, Indonesia in 2006. Three community radio stations who felt that the reporting of the eruption by the mainstream media had been inaccurate and unhelpful to those affected joined up with a group of local NGOs and other radio networks to produce accurate information on volcanic activity for those living on the mountain’s slopes. By the time of the 2010 eruption the network involved 800 volunteers, a presence online, on Twitter and on Face-book, and a hotline.”

“During the first eruption on 26 October 2010, the team found that their online accounts–especially Twitter–had become extremely busy. Ten volunteers were assigned to manage the information flow: sorting incoming information (they agreed 27 hashtags to share information), cross referencing it and checking for veracity. For example, when one report came in about a need for food for 6,000 internally displaced people, the team checked the report for veracity then redistributed it as a request for help, a request re-tweeted by followers of the Jalin Merapi account. Within 30 minutes, the same volunteer called and said that enough food had now been supplied, and asked people to stop sending food – a message that was distributed by the team immediately.”

“Interestingly, two researchers who analyzed information systems during the Merapi eruption found that many people believed traditional channels such as television to be ‘less satisfying’. In many cases they felt that television did not provide proper information at the time, but created panic instead.” […] “The success of initiatives such as the Jalin Merapi is based on the levels of trust, community interaction and person-to-person relationships on which participants can build. While technology facilitated and amplified these, it did not replace them.” […] “The work of Jalin Merapi continues today, using the time between eruptions to raise awareness of dangers and help communities plan for the next incident.”

 

Crisis Mapping for Disaster Preparedness, Mitigation and Resilience

Crisis mapping for disaster preparedness is nothing new. In 2004, my colleague Suha Ulgen spearheaded an innovative project in Istanbul that combined public participation and mobile geospatial technologies for the purposes of disaster mitigation. Suha subsequently published an excellent overview of the project entitled “Public Participation Geographic Information Sharing Systems for Co-mmunity Based Urban Disaster Mitigation,” available in this edited book on Geo-Information for Disaster Management. I have referred to this project in count-less conversations since 2007  so it is high time I blog about it as well.

Suha’s project included a novel “Neighborhood Geographic Information Sharing System,” which “provided volunteers with skills and tools for identification of seismic risks and response assets in their neighborhoods. Field data collection volunteers used low-cost hand-held computers and data compiled was fed into a geospatial database accessible over the Internet. Interactive thematic maps enabled discussion of mitigation measures and action alternatives. This pilot evolved into a proposal for sustained implementation with local fire stations.” Below is a screenshot of the web-based system that enabled data entry and query.

There’s no reason why a similar approach could not be taken today, one that uses a dedicated smart phone app combined with integrated gamification and social networking features. The idea would be to make community mapping fun and rewarding; a way to foster a more active and connected community—which would in turn build more social capital. In the event of a disaster, this same smart phone app would allow users to simply “check in” to receive information on the nearest shelter areas (response assets) as well as danger zones such as overpasses, etc. This is why geo-fencing is so important for crisis mapping.

(Incidentally, Suha’s project also included a “School Commute Contingency Pilot” designed to track school-bus routes in Istanbul and thus “stimulate contingency planning for commute-time emergencies when 400,000 students travel an average of 45 minutes each way on 20,000 service buses. [GPS] data loggers were used to determine service bus routes displayed on printed maps high-lighting nearest schools along the route.” Suha proposed that “bus-drivers, parents and school managers be issued route maps with nearest schools that could serve as both meeting places and shelters”).

Fast forward to 2012 and the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap’s (HOT) novel project “Community Mapping for Exposure in Indonesia,” which resulted in the mapping of over 160,000 buildings and numerous village level maps in under ten months. The team also organized a university competition to create incentives for the mapping of urban areas. “The students were not only tasked to digitize buildings, but to also collect building information such building structure, wall type, roof type and the number of floors.” This contributed to the mapping and codification of some 30,000 buildings.

As Suha rightly noted almost 10 years ago, “for disaster mitigation measures to be effective they need to be developed in recognition of the local differences and adopted by the active participation of each community.” OSM’s work in Indonesia fully embodies the importance of mapping local differences and provides important insights on how to catalyze community participation. The buildup of social capital is another important outcome of these efforts. Social capital facilitates collective action and increases local capacity for self-organization, resulting in greater social resilience. In sum, these novel projects demonstrate that technologies used for crisis mapping can be used for disaster preparedness, mitigation and resilience.