Tag Archives: Radio

Combining Radio, SMS and Advanced Computing for Disaster Response

I’m headed to the Philippines this week to collaborate with the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) on humanitarian crowdsourcing and technology projects. I’ll be based in the OCHA Offices in Manila, working directly with colleagues Andrej Verity and Luis Hernando to support their efforts in response to Typhoon Yolanda. One project I’m exploring in this respect is a novel radio-SMS-computing initiative that my colleague Anahi Ayala (Internews) and I began drafting during ICCM 2013 in Nairobi last week. I’m sharing the approach here to solicit feedback before I land in Manila.

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The “Radio + SMS + Computing” project is firmly grounded in GSMA’s official Code of Conduct for the use of SMS in Disaster Response. I have also drawn on the Bellagio Big Data Principles when writing up the in’s and out’s of this initiative with Anahi. The project is first and foremost a radio-based initiative that seeks to answer the information needs of disaster-affected communities.

The project: Local radio stations in the Philippines would create and broadcast radio programs inviting local communities to serve as “community journalists” to describe how the Typhoon has impacted their communities. The radio stations would provide a free SMS short-code and invite said communities to text in their observations. Each radio station would include in their broadcast a unique 2-letter identifier and would ask those texting in to start their SMS with that identifier. They would also emphasize that text messages should not include any Personal Identifying Information (PII) and no location information either. Those messages that do include PII would be deleted.

Text messages sent to the SMS short code would be automatically triaged by radio station (using the 2-letter identifier) and forwarded to the respective radio stations via SMS. (At this point, few local radio stations have web access in the disaster-affected areas). These radio stations would be funded to create radio programs based on the SMS’s received. These programs would conclude by asking local communities to text in their information needs—again using the unique radio identifier as a prefix in the text messages. Radio stations would create follow-up programs to address the information needs texted in by local communities (“news you can use”). This could be replicated on a weekly basis and extended to the post-disaster reconstruction phase.

Yolanda destruction

In parallel, the text messages documenting the impact of the Typhoon at the community level would be categorized by Cluster—such as shelter, health, education, etc. Each classified SMS would then be forwarded to the appropriate Cluster Leads. This is where advanced computing comes in: the application of microtasking and machine learning. Trusted Filipino volunteers would be invited to tag each SMS by Cluster-category (and also translate relevant text messages into English). Once enough text messages have been tagged per category, the use of machine learning classifiers would enable the automatic classification of incoming SMS’s. As explained above, these classified SMS’s would then be automatically forwarded to a designated point of contact at each Cluster Agency.

This process would be repeated for SMS’s documenting the information needs of local communities. In other words, information needs would be classified by Cluster category and forwarded to Cluster Leads. The latter would share their responses to stated information needs with the radio stations who in turn would complement their broadcasts with the information provided by the humanitarian community, thus closing the feedback loop.

The radio-SMS project would be strictly opt-in. Radio programs would clearly state that the data sent in via SMS would be fully owned by local communities who could call in or text in at any time to have their SMS deleted. Phone numbers would only be shared with humanitarian organization if the individuals texting to radio stations consented (via SMS) to their numbers being shared. Inviting communities to act as “citizen journalists” rather than asking them to report their needs may help manage expectations. Radio stations can further manage these expectations during their programs by taking questions from listeners calling in. In addition, the project seeks to limit the number of SMS’s that communities have to send. The greater the amount of information solicited from disaster-affected communities, the more challenging managing expectations may be. The project also makes a point of focusing on local information needs as the primary entry point. Finally, the data collection limits the geographical resolution to the village level for the purposes of data privacy and protection.

AIDR logo

It remains to be seen whether this project gets funded, but I’d welcome any feedback iRevolution readers may have in any event since this approach could also be used in future disasters. In the meantime, my QCRI colleagues and I are looking to modify AIDR to automatically classify SMS’s (in addition to tweets). My UNICEF colleagues already expressed to me their need to automatically classify millions of text messages for their U-Report project, so I believe that many other humanitarian and development organizations will benefit from a free and open source platform for automatic SMS classification. At the technical level, this means adding “batch-processing” to AIDR’s current “streaming” feature. We hope to have an update on this in coming weeks. Note that a batch-processing feature will also allow users to upload their own datasets of tweets for automatic classification. 


Zimbabweans turn to Blogs and SMS

The Associated Press reports that Zimbabweans are increasingly going online and using SMS to “share stories of life and death in a country where independent traditional media have been all but silenced, and from which reporters from most international media have been barred.” Zimbabwe’s bloggers are mainly opposition activists who “provide valuable independent information and can even make the news.” Some additional excerpts of interest:

Harare-based Kubatana is a network of nonprofit organizations that runs a blogging forum. The forum relies on 13 bloggers in Zimbabwe, who e-mail submissions to an administrator who posts them to the site. The network also reaches beyond the Web by sending text messages to 3,800 subscribers.

In late June, the “This is Zimbabwe” blog started a letter-writing campaign against a German firm that was supplying paper for the sinking Zimbabwean dollar. After about a week, the international media picked up the story and the company, Giesecke & Devrient, announced it would stop dealing with Zimbabwe.

Another typical posting simply lists names of victims of political violence, each accompanied by one sentence on how the person was beaten to death.

In many cases it’s impossible to tell who is doing the postings because the risks are so great. Government eavesdroppers are believed to be roaming the Web and intercepting cell phone calls, especially after a law was passed last year allowing authorities to monitor phone calls and the Internet. Deputy Information Minister Bright Matonga said the legislation was modeled after counter-terrorism legislation in America and the U.N.

Only the state-run TV and radio stations and The Herald, a government newspaper, provide daily news in Zimbabwe. There are no independent radio stations broadcasting from within the country. Journalists without hard-to-come-by government accreditation find it hard to operate.

For those who are online, near-daily power outages, followed by power surges, can make the Web an inconsistent means of communicating and gathering information. Cell phone service is also inconsistent at best; it can sometimes take hours to send text messages.

SW Radio Africa, a station based outside London that broadcasts into Zimbabwe, sends texts to 25,000 listeners a day, and they are adding about a thousand numbers each week. And it’s not just one-way. The radio station has a local phone number in Zimbabwe so listeners can send text messages or leave voicemail messages without long distance charges, and then someone from the station can call them back. Radio stations broadcasting into Zimbabwe from outside are forced to broadcast on multiple frequencies to avoid being jammed by the government.

A recently imposed import duty on newspapers charges a 40 percent tax for independent voices like the newspaper The Zimbabwean, published abroad and shipped in and available on the Web. Weekly circulation has recently dropped from 200,000 to 60,000 and the paper has stopped publishing its Sunday edition.

See my post here for information on the Dial-Up Radio project in Zimbabwe.

Patrick Philippe Meier

Dialup Radio for Communication in Conflict Zones?

I blogged about Tad Hirsch‘s TXTmob project back in April and spoke to him this week about his Dialup Radio project. The intuitive web-based interface allows anyone to upload brief radio-style audio files to make them available via phone along with the option of using different menu options. For example, one could broadcast news about electoral-related violence in difference cities and towns across Zimbabwe: “For today’s news on Bulawayo, press 1, for news on Gweru, press 2,” etc.

Dialup Radio has been designed specifically to meet the needs of human rights activists in the developing world. The system can be installed locally or may be operated across national borders. Particular attention has been paid to system security and to minimizing costs of operation

The Dialup Radio project is currently being used in Zimbabwe where independent radio stations have been outlawed. Other tactics include copying broadcasts on cassette tapes and disseminating the tapes widely among taxi and long-distance bus drivers across the country. Indeed, the best place to get accurate reporting in Zimbabwe may very well be from a taxi driver. I certainly found this to be the case while in Nairobi following the December 2007 presidential elections and the ensuing violence.

Patrick Philippe Meier